Put Ratio Spread Explained

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    Best Choice!
    Free Trading Education!
    Free Demo Account!
    Big Sign-Up Bonus!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Choice For Experienced Traders!!!

Contents

Put Spreads

A put spread is an option spread strategy that is created when equal number of put options are bought and sold simultaneously. Unlike the put buying strategy in which the profit potential is unlimited, the maximum profit generated by put spreads are limited but they are also, however, relatively cheaper to employ. Additionally, unlike the outright purchase of put options which can only be employed by bearish investors, put spreads can be constructed to profit from a bull, bear or neutral market.

Vertical Put Spread

One of the most basic spread strategies to implement in options trading is the vertical spread. A vertical put spread is created when the short puts and the long puts have the same expiration date but different strike prices. Vertical put spreads can be bullish or bearish.

Bull Vertical Put Spread

The vertical bull put spread, or simply bull put spread, is used when the option trader thinks that the underlying security’s price will rise before the put options expire.

Bear Vertical Put Spread

The vertical bear put spread, or simply bear put spread, is employed by the option trader who believes that the price of the underlying security will fall before the put options expire.

Calendar (Horizontal) Put Spread

A calendar put spread is created when long term put options are bought and near term put options with the same strike price are sold. Depending on the near term outlook, either the neutral calendar put spread or the bear calendar put spread can be employed.

Neutral Calendar Put Spread

When the option trader’s near term outlook on the underlying is neutral, a neutral calendar put spread can be implemented using at-the-money put options to construct the spread. The main objective of the neutral calendar put spread strategy is to profit from the rapid time decay of the near term options.

Bear Calendar Put Spread

Investors employing the bear calendar put spread are bearish on the underlying on the long term and are selling the near term puts with the intention of riding the long term puts for a discount and sometimes even for free. Out-of-the-money put options are used to construct the bear calendar put spread.

Diagonal Put Spread

A diagonal put spread is created when long term put options are bought and near term put options with a higher strike price are sold. The diagonal put spread is actually very similar to the bear calendar put spread. The main difference is that the near term outlook of the diagonal bear put spread is slightly more bearish.

You May Also Like

Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    Best Choice!
    Free Trading Education!
    Free Demo Account!
    Big Sign-Up Bonus!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Choice For Experienced Traders!!!

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Ratio Spread

The ratio spread is a neutral strategy in options trading that involves buying a number of options and selling more options of the same underlying stock and expiration date at a different strike price. It is a limited profit, unlimited risk options trading strategy that is taken when the options trader thinks that the underlying stock will experience little volatility in the near term.

Ratio Spread Construction
Buy 1 ITM Call
Sell 2 OTM Calls

Call Ratio Spread

Using calls, a 2:1 call ratio spread can be implemented by buying a number of calls at a lower strike and selling twice the number of calls at a higher strike.

Limited Profit Potential

Maximum gain for the call ratio spread is limited and is made when the underlying stock price at expiration is at the strike price of the options sold. At this price, both the written calls expire worthless while the long call expires in the money.

The formula for calculating maximum profit is given below:

  • Max Profit = Strike Price of Short Call – Strike Price of Long Call + Net Premium Received – Commissions Paid
  • Max Profit Achieved When Price of Underlying = Strike Price of Short Calls

Unlimited Upside Risk

Loss occurs when the stock price makes a strong move to the upside beyond the upper beakeven point. There is no limit to the maximum possible loss when implementing the call ratio spread strategy.

The formula for calculating loss is given below:

  • Maximum Loss = Unlimited
  • Loss Occurs When Price of Underlying > Strike Price of Short Calls + ((Strike Price of Short Call – Strike Price of Long Call + Net Premium Received) / Number of Uncovered Calls)
  • Loss = Price of Underlying – Strike Price of Short Calls – Max Profit + Commissions Paid

Little or No Downside Risk

Any risk to the downside for the call ratio spread is limited to the debit taken to put on the spread (if any). There may even be a profit if a credit is received when putting on the spread.

Breakeven Point(s)

There are 2 break-even points for the ratio spread position. The breakeven points can be calculated using the following formulae.

  • Upper Breakeven Point = Strike Price of Short Calls + (Points of Maximum Profit / Number of Uncovered Calls)
  • Lower Breakeven Point = Strike Price of Long Call +/- Net Premium Paid or Received

Using the graph shown earlier, since the maximum profit is $500, points of maximum profit is therefore equals to 5. Adding this to the higher strike of $45, we can calculate the breakeven point to be $50. (See example below)

Example

Suppose XYZ stock is trading at $43 in June. An options trader executes a 2:1 ratio call spread strategy by buying a JUL 40 call for $400 and selling two JUL 45 calls for $200 each. The net debit/credit taken to enter the trade is zero.

On expiration in July, if XYZ stock is trading at $45, both the JUL 45 calls expire worthless while the long JUL 40 call expires in the money with $500 in intrinsic value. Selling or exercising this long call will give the options trader his maximum profit of $500.

If XYZ stock rallies and is trading at $50 on expiration in July, all the options will expire in the money but because the trader has written more calls than he has bought, he will need to buy back the written calls which have increased in value. Each JUL 45 call written is now worth $500. However, his long JUL 40 call is worth $1000 and is just enough to offset the losses from the written calls. Therefore, he achieves breakeven at $50.

Beyond $50 though, there will be no limit to the loss possible. For example, at $60, each written JUL 45 call will be worth $1500 while his single long JUL 40 call is only worth $2000, resulting in a loss of $1000.

However, there is no downside risk to this trade. If the stock price had dropped to $40 or below at expiration, all the options involved will expire worthless. Since the net debit to put on this trade is zero, there is no resulting loss.

Note: While we have covered the use of this strategy with reference to stock options, the ratio spread is equally applicable using ETF options, index options as well as options on futures.

Commissions

For ease of understanding, the calculations depicted in the above examples did not take into account commission charges as they are relatively small amounts (typically around $10 to $20) and varies across option brokerages.

However, for active traders, commissions can eat up a sizable portion of their profits in the long run. If you trade options actively, it is wise to look for a low commissions broker. Traders who trade large number of contracts in each trade should check out OptionsHouse.com as they offer a low fee of only $0.15 per contract (+$4.95 per trade).

Similar Strategies

The following strategies are similar to the ratio spread in that they are also low volatility strategies that have limited profit potential and unlimited risk.

Put Ratio Spread

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. Support for this pricing relationship is based upon the argument that arbitrage opportunities would materialize if there is a divergence between the value of calls and puts. Arbitrageurs would come in to make profitable, riskless trades until the put-call parity is restored.

To begin understanding how the put-call parity is established, let’s first take a look at two portfolios, A and B. Portfolio A consists of a european call option and cash equal to the number of shares covered by the call option multiplied by the call’s striking price. Portfolio B consist of a european put option and the underlying asset. Note that equity options are used in this example.

Portfolio A = Call + Cash, where Cash = Call Strike Price

Portfolio B = Put + Underlying Asset

It can be observed from the diagrams above that the expiration values of the two portfolios are the same.

Call + Cash = Put + Underlying Asset

Eg. JUL 25 Call + $2500 = JUL 25 Put + 100 XYZ Stock

If the two portfolios have the same expiration value, then they must have the same present value. Otherwise, an arbitrage trader can go long on the undervalued portfolio and short the overvalued portfolio to make a riskfree profit on expiration day. Hence, taking into account the need to calculate the present value of the cash component using a suitable risk-free interest rate, we have the following price equality:

Put-Call Parity and American Options

Since American style options allow early exercise, put-call parity will not hold for American options unless they are held to expiration. Early exercise will result in a departure in the present values of the two portfolios.

Validating Option Pricing Models

The put-call parity provides a simple test of option pricing models. Any pricing model that produces option prices which violate the put-call parity is considered flawed.

You May Also Like

Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    Best Choice!
    Free Trading Education!
    Free Demo Account!
    Big Sign-Up Bonus!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Choice For Experienced Traders!!!

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Binary Options Trading Guide
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: